Russian Economics before Maksakovsky

Deferring this to others.

Worthwhile for tracing modern value theory variational analysis, lattice normed vector spaces, linear programming, convex optimization etc to later Soviet economic planning from which modern Economic statistics including input output tables, UN System of National Accounts developed (with customary lack of acknowledgement to Marx).

Starts with early tradition developing from Marx’s volume 2 reproduction schema in debate with Narodnik populist/romantics (from united front of bolshevik and menshevik Marxists and liberal bourgeois “legal Marxists”).

Also worth a look for explaining reproduction schema.

Finally, possibly a secondary channel for getting Maksakovsky into the academic literature via historical journals explaining these connections.


Pioneering work in 1893 “On the So-Called Market Question”, LCW 1, pp 75-127. With editorial notes 17-24 pp 516-517 that correct some slips.

Not seen by Maksakovsky but “created a tremendous impression” in St Petersberg Marxist circle and and “went the rounds” to other circles and other cities. Would have been a major influence, especially via later development in “Development of Capitalism in Russia” which certainly would have been studied by Maksakovsky. Manuscript only, lost until first published in 1937, Bolshevik n21.

Development from Marx’s textual explanation of minimal c+v+s schemas to more tabular breakdown of inputs and outputs towards “chessboard” can be seen in section 3, pp86-7. Separates means of production as means production from means of production as means of consumption in final table p87. Would become separate sector.

Large table section 5 spread across facing pages pp 96-97 shows development of commodity production from subsistence households then wage labor in 6 steps arranged 2 across by 3 down. Each is close to a full input-output table. Should do as 6 sheets in spreadsheet starting from original and moving to full input output.

Unfortunately combined with absolute impoverishment to avoid Narodnik objections.

Should add money, prices, changing technology, with increased living standards as well as exploitation. Also explicit labor time and leisure

Need stocks for prices.

Worth starting here as graphic used in version makes schemas unreadable.

In “Development of Capitalism in Russia”, Lenin recommended Bulgakov’s exposition of Marx’s reproduction schemes:

…Readers who are unable to familiarise themselves with Volume II of Capital are recommended to read the exposition of Marx’s theory of realisation contained in Mr. S. Bulgakov’s book quoted above. Mr. Bulgakov’s exposition is more satisfactory than that of Mr. M. Tugan-Baranovsky (Industrial Crises, pp. 407-438), who in building up his schemes has made some very ill-judged departutes from Marx and has inadequately explained Marx’s theory; it is also more satisfactory than the exposition given by Mr. A. Skortsov (Fundamentals of Political Economy, St. Petersburg, 1898, pp. 281-295), who holds wrong views on the very important questions of profit and rent.

LCW 3, chapter 1.6 “Marx’s Theory of Realisation” footnote p54.

Reference “quoted above” is in chapter 1.4 p45: Markets Under Capitalist Production, Moscow 1897, pp.237-245.

Footnote on same p45:

* It will not be superflous to remind the contemporary reader that Mr. Bulgakov, and also Messrs. Struve and Tugan-Baranovsky, whom we shall quote rather often later on, tried to be Marxists in 1899. Now they have all turned from “critics of Marx” into plain bourgeois economists. (Note to 2nd edition{. _18})

The LCW editors note 18 says:

Here and elsewhere, footnotes indicated as Note to 2nd edition are those written by Lenin himself when he prepared the second, 1908 edition of this work.

The “legal Marxists” referred to above and other Russian economists of that period are of some interest especially in relation to Marx’s reproduction schemes. Some references below.

@article{Zarembka-2003,@article{Zarembka-2003,doi = {10.1521/siso.},title = {Lenin as Economist of Production: A Ricardian Step Backwards},author = {Zarembka, Paul},publisher = {Guilford Publishing Inc},journal = {Science & Society},issnp = {0036-8237},year = {2003},month = {09},volume = {67},issue = {3},page = {276–302},url = {},}


@article{Clark-1984,@article{Clark-1984,doi = {10.1080/00472338485390301},title = {Planning and the real origins of input-output analysis},author = {Clark, D.L.},publisher = {Taylor and Francis Group},journal = {Journal of Contemporary Asia},issnp = {0047-2336},issne = {1752-7554},year = {1984},month = {01},volume = {14},issue = {4},page = {408–429},url = {},}

Soviet Studies Volume 34 issue 4 1982 [doi 10.1080%2F09668138208411446] Remington, Thomas F. — Varga and the foundation of Soviet planning∗.pdf

@article{Remington-1982,@article{Remington-1982,doi = {10.1080/09668138208411446},title = {Varga and the foundation of Soviet planning∗},author = {Remington, Thomas F.},publisher = {Taylor and Francis Group},journal = {Soviet Studies},issnp = {0038-5859},year = {1982},month = {10},volume = {34},issue = {4},page = {585–600},url = {},}

(Routledge Studies in the History of Economics) François Allisson-Value and Prices in Russian Economic Thought_ A Journey Inside the Russian Synthesis, 1890–1920-Routledge (2015).pdf

title = {Value and Prices in Russian Economic Thought: A Journey Inside the Russian Synthesis, 1890–1920},
author = {François Allisson},
publisher = {Routledge},
isbn = {9781138839779},
year = {2015},
series = {Routledge Studies in the History of Economics},
edition = {},
volume = {},
url = {}}

Vincen Barnett-A History of Russian Economic Thought (Routledge History of Economic Thought) (2005).pdf

title = {A History of Russian Economic Thought (Routledge History of Economic Thought)},
author = {Vincen Barnett},
publisher = {},
isbn = {0415352649,9780415352642,9780203171967},
year = {2005},
series = {},
edition = {1},
volume = {},
url = {}}


See separate article. Short summary of reproduction schemes in Concise Textbook. Could be used for intro.


Mentions Bukharin, Varga, paper on origins of Soviet planning “chessboard” by Remington (listed above under miscellaneous).

Bukharin and Preobrazhensky

title = {The ABC of Communism: A Popular Explanation of the Program of the Communist Party of Russia (1922 trans by Eden and Cedar Paul)},
author = {Nikolai Bukharin (Buharin, Bucharin), Yevgeni Preobrazhensky},
publisher = {The Communist Party of Great Britain},
isbn = {},
year = {1919},
series = {},
edition = {},
volume = {},
url = {}

(See also Day’s retranslation of chapters in Preobrazhensky papers)

Sergei Bulgakov

Not found translations on reproduction schema. Mainly Christian stuff.

Sergei Bulgakov-Philosophy of Economy_ The World as Household (2000).pdf

title = {Philosophy of Economy: The World as Household},
author = {Sergei Bulgakov},
publisher = {},
isbn = {9780300079906,9780300132854,0300079907},
year = {2000},
series = {},
edition = {},
volume = {},
url = {}}

Stanchev_Bulgakov and the Spirit of Capitalism.pdf

@article{stanchev2008sergey, title={Sergey Bulgakov and the Spirit of Capitalism}, author={Stanchev, Krassen}, journal={Journal of Markets and Morality}, volume={11}, number={1}, pages={149}, year={2008}, publisher={Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty} }

@article{payne2009sergei, title={Sergei Bulgakov’s “Sophic” Economy: An Eastern Orthodox Perspective on Christian Economics}, author={Payne, Daniel P and Marsh, Christopher}, year={2009} }

Vladimir Karpovich Dmitriev

title={V K Dmitriev: Economic Essays on Value, Competition and Utility},
author={Nuti, D.M.},
publisher={Gregg Revivals}

Not found.

See also papers on Sraffa that mention Dmitriev:

author = {Jefferies, W},
year = {2017},
month = {05},
pages = {509–517},
title = {Piero Sraffa, Reproduction without Production and Technological Magic: A Reply},
volume = {43},
booktitle = {Critical Sociology}

author = {Jefferies, W},
year = {2015},
month = {02},
pages = {},
title = {Piero Sraffa and the Production of Commodities by Means of Magic},
volume = {43},
booktitle = {Critical Sociology}

@article{Rober-1977,@article{Rober-1977,doi = {10.1111/j.1467-9485.1977.tb00424.x},title = {Dmitriev’s smithian model},author = {Robert M. Larsen},publisher = {John Wiley and Sons},journal = {Scottish Journal of Political Economy},issnp = {0036-9292},issne = {1467-9485},year = {1977},volume = {24},issue = {3},page = {227–233},url = {},}

Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky

Translated in:

title = {Research in Political Economy: Value, Capitalist Dynamics, and Money. Volume 18},
author = {P. Zarembka},
publisher = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited},
isbn = {0762306963,9780762306961},
year = {2000},
series = {},
edition = {1},
volume = {18},
url = {}

This volume begins with an introduction to Marx’s theory of capitalism in his own words, with his examples modernized from use of shillings and pence as subdivisions of the Pound. Well-known 1901 work on the theory of crises in capitalism by Michael Tugan-Baranowsky is translated into English for the first time, with a Preface placing it in context. The political activism and theoretical work of Henryk Grossman through 1926 is summarized in some detail, and a rarely-known brief article of his from1919 included. Ambiguity in Marx’s definition of accumulation of capital and the differing directions Lenin and Luxemburg took with it are next analyzed, with a more precise definition offered. Debate, begun in the last volume, over the valuation of means of production and its effect on the possibility of a falling tendency of the profit rate is taken a step forward as contrasting positions are developed. Finally, credit money as an advanced form of money is analyzed and the post-Keynesian analysis of it, originating from Kaldor, subject to critique. Several theories of inflation theory are reviewed, with focus on the agencies causing inflation. A rediscovery of Marxian inflation theory is proposed.

Above includes abridgement of Marx’s “Value, Price and Profit”, debate on TSSI etc.

Should also check rest of series.

@article{Barnett-2001,@article{Barnett-2001,doi = {10.1080/10427710120096956},title = {Tugan-Baranovsky as a Pioneer of Trade Cycle Analysis},author = {Barnett, Vincent},publisher = {Taylor and Francis Group},journal = {Journal of the History of Economic Thought},issnp = {1053-8372},issne = {1469-9656},year = {2001},month = {12},volume = {23},issue = {04},page = {443–},url = {},}

@article{Besomi-2006,@article{Besomi-2006,doi = {10.1080/09538250600571338},title = {‘Marxism Gone Mad’: Tugan-Baranovsky on crises, their possibility and their periodicity},author = {Besomi, Daniele},publisher = {Taylor and Francis Group},journal = {Review of Political Economy},issnp = {0953-8259},issne = {1465-3982},year = {2006},month = {4},day = {1},volume = {18},issue = {2},page = {147–171},url = {},}


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